9 Common Types of Neck Injury

Neck injuries vary in severity and type, they can be caused by accidents, trauma to the area, falls, sleeping in off positions, degenerative changes or a combination of things.

Neck Injuries Affecting Soft Tissue

This category would include damage to one or more anatomical part in your neck. The soft tissue include the muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. These work together to hold your head up on your bones. usually when there is a trauma there will be several diagnoses for example in whiplash can include muscle strains, ligament sprains, joint dysfunction, disc injuries and even bone fractures.

The good news is that most of the time neck injuries that mainly affecting the soft tissue are very treatable with conservative care.

Muscle Strain

A neck muscle strain is and injury to any of the muscles that attach to and move the head and upper part of the spine known as the cervical spine. The symptoms include reduced range of motion, muscle spasm, increased pain during active range of motion.

With a Grade II neck strain, the injury is limited to the muscle only. Like a Grade 1 strain, your neck pain is likely not indicative of other types of structural damage. But when it comes to Grades III and IV, it is. According to the Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders, Grade III neck strain is associated with nerve damage. In this case, you may, among other things, get weak and/or feel electrical sensations down one arm. With these injuries, making an appointment with your doctor as soon as possible will likely give you the best chance of a full recovery.
Needless to say, Grade IV neck strains are the most serious of all. The Quebec Task Force says these are related to fracture or vertebral dislocation. This injury requires immediate medical attention.

Neck Sprain

Sprains are injuries to ligaments. (Ligaments are strong bands of connective tissue that hold bones together.) Neck sprains can be caused by falls or sudden twists that overload or overstretch one or more joints in your cervical spine. Another cause is repeated stress to the joint. These are common in sport injuries and auto accidents alike, and are treated in chiropractic offices every day.

According to the American Academy of Orthopedic surgeons (AAOS), symptoms of a neck sprain can be very varied but may include pain at the back of your neck that gets worse when you move, pain that comes on slowly and peaks after about 24 hour hours.

Neck sprains can also bring on less structural type symptoms, including a sore throat, mood changes, difficulty concentrating or sleeping and more, the AAOS says.

Similar to neck strains, neck sprains can be mild, moderate, or severe and are graded. This may mean, for example, that if you have tingling down one arm, your sprain is a Grade III. Always check with your doctor to be sure.

Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD)

Whiplash (WAD) is a set of symptoms following a movement event in which the head is thrown first into hyperextension and then quickly forward into flexion. It’s most often due to car accidents, but may be caused by sports injuries, falls, or trauma.

Like a neck crick, WAD is not a medical diagnosis. It’s an episode that can lead to any number of diagnoses from strain to a herniated disc and sometimes more.

Whiplash may damage joints or discs, which in turn may irritate spinal nerve roots or, more rarely, the spinal cord, causing nerve symptoms.

Depending on the exact nature of the injury, symptoms can include pain, weakness, numbness, tingling, or other electric-type sensations that go down one arm. Stiffness, dizziness, or disturbed sleep are also possible. Note that symptoms may be delayed a few days or even weeks following the whiplash event.

Research suggests that a multi-modal approach to treating whiplash can be effective. This includes chiropractic care, massage therapy, physical therapy, acupuncture, injection therapy.

Herniated Disc

A herniated disc occurs when the soft substance that is normally contained to the inside of the disc (called the nucleus pulposus) starts to push through the annulus fibrosus and create a bulge/herniation into the spinal canal or foramina. This can can compress and irritate a nerve root, you’ll likely feel pain and/or have nerve-related symptoms. Nerve-related symptoms generally includes weakness, numbness, a burning sensation, or electrical shock sensation that go down one arm.

Tears in the tough outer fibers of the disc (called annular tears) may lead to a herniation. Annular tears may be brought on by either repeated or a sudden, forceful stress to the spinal joint. Treatment generally starts with medication and physical therapy but may proceed to surgery as needed.

Herniated discs can happen anywhere along the spine where one of the shock-absorbing cushions are located, including of course, in the cervical spine, or neck, area.

Disc herniations can be symptomatic and asymptomatic, these can be treated successfully with conservative care. Just because you may have a herniation or more does not mean that you will always be in pain. There is hope and we are professionals who specialize in fixing the problem not just masking your symptoms for a time.

Stingers and Burners

Named for the way they feel, stingers and burners are temporary injuries to the spinal nerve. They are common in football players, especially tacklers, as well as other contact-sport athletes.

Stingers and burners may be caused either by an abrupt tilt of the head or when the head and shoulder are forced in opposite directions at the same time. This type of injury is from applying too much traction to the nerve and over stretching them.

Symptoms include burning, stinging, numbness/weakness, or an electrical sensation down one arm. You may feel a warm sensation along with the other symptoms.

If a stinger or burner is severe or lasts longer than a few minutes, see a sports chiropractor or other professional.

Neck Fracture

A is a break in a cervical bone. It may be caused by trauma, a fall, or degenerative changes in the spine. The angle of force at impact often determines the type and severity of the break.

Football players who block with their head are at high risk for cervical fractures. Elderly people with osteoporosis are also at risk, because of their fragile bones. The most serious neck fractures are generally accompanied by a dislocation.

Treatment depends on a lot of things, including your age, other medical conditions, and the extent of damage to your spine.

Cervical Dislocation

Dislocation occurs when a neck bone moves out its normal position, creating spinal instability. When a neck bone is dislocated, either an injury or degenerative changes disrupt the ligaments that normally hold it in place, causing it to separate from the bone below.

When brought on by trauma, a dislocation may be accompanied by fracture.

In the most severe dislocation, the bone is fully displaced forward (called jumping), and it locks in this position. The ligaments rupture completely. Dislocations may damage the spinal cord and/or require surgery.

Less severe forms occur when the bone does not move all the way out, or when only one side fully displaces. Mild dislocations may go back in place on their own.

Spinal Cord Injury

A spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs when a fracture, dislocation, or other neck injury damages the spinal cord. The speed of emergency care and the type of first aid and medical treatment immediately given are especially critical to survival and subsequent quality of life following any serious neck injury. SCI are one of the most most serious and life altering of injuries that could happen in life.

Here at Vector Spine and Sport we treat and co-treat many of these conditions. If you have any questions or concerns what route of treatments would best suit your case, please reach out and give us a call or send us an email. We are always glad to help in any way we can.

5 options for treating Sciatic pain

First off what is sciatic pain or sciatica?

Sciatica is a general term that is used by many to describe symptoms that refer or radiate down the leg or legs. The symptoms can feel like numbness, Tingling, burning, and electrical.

What causes sciatic pain?

The top causes of true sciatic pain are disc herniations, bone spurs, and spondylolisthesis. There are conditions that can mimic sciatic pain such as piriformis syndrome and sacroiliac joint dysfunctions that can refer pain in similar patterns.

How is it treated?

Chiropractic care is a great non-surgical avenue to pursue to alleviate sciatic pain and low back pain in general. As musculoskeletal specialists, chiropractors have great results with treating this type of conditions. Through the use of chiropractic adjustments, massage therapy or muscle work, and therapeutic exercises we are able to greatly reduce and in most cases eliminate the symptoms.

Acupuncture is another great option that is used to treat sciatic pain. The goal with acupuncture is to calm the central nervous system as well and release tension in the muscles surrounding the spine. Acupuncturists seek to balance the flow of energy pathways in the body through pathways called meridians and reduce inflammation which is can aggravate many conditions.

Physical therapy is helps to reduce pain through specific exercises to stabilize the spine and increase function. Here in the office we use rehabilitation exercises to help fix the issues so you can get back to having fun. If we do not have the tools to get you better we have the contacts that do.

Steroid injections can be beneficial for short term reduction in pain when it comes to sciatic pain. This can be expensive and is not a good long term option as their are increased risks associated with multiple injections with steroids.

Activity modification is another way to reduce pain as well as stay out of pain. In modern day society in general we do not move as much as we should. making simple changes throughout our day can make huge differences. research suggests that we should be taking micro breaks through our day so that we are not in one position too long. This can be as simple as standing up and walking around our desk at work or shifting the hips side to side and forward and back while driving in the car.

Here at Vector Spine and Sport we like to help you fix the issues that arise as you go through your life. As with many things in life it’s usually not just one thing that causes or solves the problems, it’s a combination of things. That is why we listen to what you say, since you know your body better than anyone else.

If you are curious if Chiropractic care or any of the other options are a good fit for you, please contact us, we are your local Millcreek chiropractor.

Opioid epidemic. What alternatives are out there?


According to the CDC on Drug Abuse, every day, more than 130 people in the United States die after overdosing on opioids (1). The abuse of this classification is a serious national crisis that affects public health as well as social and economic welfare. The Centers for Disease Control and prevention estimate the prescription opioid misuse alone in the US is around $78.5 Billion a year, including the costs of healthcare, lost productivity, addiction treatment, and criminal justice involvement (2). Roughly 21-29% of patients prescribed opiods for chronic pain misuse them (4). of those between 8-12% develop a opioid use disorder.

10 Alternatives to opioids

Chiropractic care

Chiropractors are specialists focused on neruomuscular disorders, who emphasize manual manipulation of the spine and extremities. Studies have shown to be effective at decreasing pain and improving physical function (5).

Acupuncture

Acupuncture is the Chinese practice that involves and experienced practitioner using hair thin needles into the skin at specific points in the body. Through this they are correcting imbalances in the nervous system and muscles. In the Archives of Internal Medicine a review found that acupuncture relieved pain by about 50% in patients (6).

Physical Therapy

A physical therapist specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation. They may be able to create an exercise program that helps you improve the function of your body mechanics and decrease your pain.

Massage Therapy

Massage therapy is a great tool in combination with chiropractic, acutpuncture and physical therapy wheather it be acute injury such as a car accident or sports injury or chronic problems like low back pain, neck pain etc.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help people practice “acceptance theory”, which can lead to behavioral changes and perceptions, and increase patient confidence and self-efficacy for pain management. In a review published in the American Psychologist found that CBT had small to moderate effect on decreasing pain when compares to patients usual treatment, this option was suggested to be best applied in conjunction with a primary care setting (7).

Steroid injections

Seroid injections are a commonly given pain and inflamation releaver associated with certain joints and conditions. Although fequently used, the long term effects are not well established. The short term effects are are established and show a significant reduction in pain and inflamation, but there is a increased risk of bone thinning with the use of some steroid injections (8).

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

NSAIDs are the common drugs wich include asprin and ibuprofen. They are used to reduce inflammation as well as lower fevers. Many NSAIDs can be bought OTC, which means they are easy to obtain and relativly inexpensive. But like all drugs should be taken with care and not for extended periods of time due to the increased risk for heart attack and stroke, as well as gastrointestinal bleeding or other problems.

Diet and life style

Diet and life style are one of the most common ways to self-manage chronic and acute pain. The activities very from person to person as to what will work, you need to find what is going to be best for you and what you enjoy. From power lifting, dance, yoga, to running or even going for a walk around the block. The more we move and the better we eat, the better we will feel, it’s as simple as that eat right, move right, feel right (11).

Electrical Stimulation

Electrical nerve stimulation can provide short-term pain relief, especially for various types of muscle pain, by sending low-voltage electrical signals from a small device to the painful area through pads attached to the skin. While researchers aren’t sure why it works, they think it may either interrupt the nerve signals to the brain or stimulate the production of “feel good” endorphins, the body’s natural painkillers (9).

CBD oil

CBD oils are todays go to for many conditions. They are useful in reducing inflamation, relaxing muscles and reducing pain.

In practice I have come across a variety of treatments for acute and chonic pain. If you are in pain see one or more of the specialist listed above you can usually find one in your area that offers a free consultation to see if you are a good candidite for their approach to conditions. There is hope out there you might have to get out of your comfort zone, but that is where growth tends to happen.

1.CDC/NCHS, National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. CDC WONDER, Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2018. https://wonder.cdc.gov.

2. Florence CS, Zhou C, Luo F, Xu L. The Economic Burden of Prescription Opioid Overdose, Abuse, and Dependence in the United States, 2013. Med Care. 2016;54(10):901-906. doi:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000625.

3. “Trends in Opioid Analgesic Abuse and Mortality in the United States | NEJM.” New England Journal of Medicine, Richard C. Dart, M.D., Ph.D., Hilary L. Surratt, Ph.D., Theodore J. Cicero, Ph.D., Mark W. Parrino, M.P.A., S. Geoff Severtson, Ph.D., Becki Bucher-Bartelson, Ph.D., and Jody L. Green, Ph.D www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa1406143.

4. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2018.

5. Goertz, C. M., Long, C. R., Hondras, M. A., Petri, R., Delgado, R., Lawrence, D. J., . . . Meeker, W. C. (2013, April 15). Adding chiropractic manipulative therapy to standard medical care for patients with acute low back pain: Results of a pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness study. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23060056

6. Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Maschino AC, et al. Acupuncture for Chronic Pain: Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(19):1444–1453. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3654

7. https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/amp-a0035747.pdf

8. Bicket, M. C., Gupta, A., Brown, C. H., & Cohen, S. P. (2013, October 01). Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain:A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Evaluating the “Control” Injections in Randomized Controlled Trials. Retrieved from http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1918146

9. M., S., B., A., A., & G. (n.d.). Analgesic effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in patients with fibromyalgia: A systematic review. Retrieved March 04, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30029964

10. Joseph, L. H., Hancharoenkul, B., Sitilertpisan, P., Pirunsan, U., & Paungmali, A. (2018). Effects of Massage as a Combination Therapy with Lumbopelvic Stability Exercises as Compared to Standard Massage Therapy in Low Back Pain: a Randomized Cross-Over Study. International journal of therapeutic massage & bodywork11(4), 16-22.

11. Hoon, E. A., Gill, T. K., Pham, C., Gray, J., & Beilby, J. (2015). A population analysis of self-management and health-related quality of life for chronic musculoskeletal conditions. Health expectations : an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy20(1), 24-34.

What is CBD oil used to treat?

CBD oils are the hot topic right now, but what does the research say it is effective at helping?

CBD is one of the 104 chemical compounds known as cannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa (1), commonly called marijuana plant or just cannabis. It can be obtained with or with out Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) which is the main psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis. THC is attributed with the sensation of getting “high” with the use of marijuana. However, unlike THC, CBD is not psychoactive.

CBD oil is made by extracting CBD from the plant and then diluting it with a carrier oil such as hemp seed or coconut oil. It has been gaining momentum in the health and wellness world, some of the studies suggest the it may help in a variety of ailments such as chronic pain, anxiety, muscle pain, and inflammation.

Chronic Pain

The human body has a specialized system called the endocannabinoid system (ECS), this is involved in regulation a variety of functions including sleep, pain, immune system response, and appetite (2). The body produces endocannabinoids, which are the neurotransmitters that bind to the cannabinoid receptors in your nervous system.

Studies have show that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by impacting the endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation and interacting with the neurotransmitters (3). In another study of patients with multiple sclerosis those treated with Sativex, an oral spray which is a combination of THC and CBD, for one month experienced a significant improvement in pain, walking and muscle cramps when compared to a placebo group (4). Another study found that it improved pain during movement and rest in people with rheumatoid arthritis (5).

In short, CBD oil is showing promise in reducing inflammation in lots of different conditions. We could use these studies to apply this to more acute conditions such as whiplash after an auto injury, or after a sports injury, to reduce inflammation and jump start the road to recovery.

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/cbd-oil-benefits#section1

Reducing Anxiety and Depression

CBD oil is showing promise in the treatment for both depression and anxiety, as a more natural treatment approach.

The research found that CBD helped reduce anxiety and cognitive impairment and discomfort in a study comparing public speaking anxiety when compared to a placebo group (6). It has also been used in the treatment of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder in children (7).

Side Effects?

CBD is generally well tolerated and considered safe, the most common side effects in people are diarrhea, changes in appetite, and some fatigue. CBD is also know to interact with several medications, so before you start using CBD oil it is recommended to discuss it with your prescribing doctor or pharmacist to make sure it is not going to interfere negatively with any medications you are taking.

Summary

CBD oil has the potential to treat a large variety of health conditions from minor to more serious. There is new studies being done all the time on the application and use of CBD and cannabinoids. I am interested to see more research in this field directed towards more acute injuries as an alternative to the use of opiods and other pain relievers with a longer list of serious side effects.

  1. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on the Health Effects of Marijuana: An Evidence Review and Research Agenda. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2017 Jan 12. 2, Cannabis. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK425762/
  2. Mouslech, Z., & Valla, V. (n.d.). Endocannabinoid system: An overview of its potential in current medical practice. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19675519
  3. Genaro, K., Fabris, D., Arantes, A., Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J., & Prado, W. A. (2017). Cannabidiol Is a Potential Therapeutic for the Affective-Motivational Dimension of Incision Pain in Rats. Frontiers in pharmacology8, 391. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00391
  4. Mouslech, Z., & Valla, V. (n.d.). Endocannabinoid system: An overview of its potential in current medical practice. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19675519
  5. Blake DR, e. (2019). Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoi… – PubMed – NCBI. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16282192
  6. Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Chagas, M. H., de Oliveira, D. C., De Martinis, B. S., Kapczinski, F., Quevedo, J., Roesler, R., Schröder, N., Nardi, A. E., Martín-Santos, R., Hallak, J. E., Zuardi, A. W., … Crippa, J. A. (2011). Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology36(6), 1219-26.
  7. Shannon, S., & Opila-Lehman, J. (2016). Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report. The Permanente journal20(4), 108-111.

Importance of seeing a Chiropractor after a car accident.

Time is essential after being in an auto-accident. According to the Journal of Orthopedic Medicine, “Chiropractic is the only proven effective treatment in Chronic [whiplash] cases”(1). Early intervention drastically increases the effectiveness and outcomes when it comes to car accidents. Now am I saying that Chiropractic care is the best thing for everyone after a car accident, No I am not, I am saying that it is beneficial to see a musculo-skeletal specialist. These could be Chiropractors, Physical therapists, Massage therapists, Orthopedic surgeons etc. Unfortunately for most people they only go to the urgent care or primary care physicians, who prescribe some muscle relaxers and pain killers. This gets you part way because in the early stages of injury after a car accident you are in the acute inflammatory phase, which is between 1-7 days after injury. This phase the pain goal is to minimize inflammation and pain, effective non-medication modalities are: gentle manipulation, soft tissue therapy, laser therapy, therapeutic taping to name a few. After phase 1 if the Sub acute phase anywhere from day 3 to around 3 weeks after the injury. This phase is categorized by inflammation reduction and feeling like you can move a little bit better than before. Phase 3 is the remodeling phase which takes place between 1-6 weeks typically, This is an important time to be preparing the soft tissues of the body to be ready to work again through manipulation, massage, and therapeutic exercises if tolerated. Phase 4 the functional phase is between 2 weeks and 6 months, the goal here is to be getting back to normal activities without re-injury. This is where physical therapy, chiropractic adjustments, soft tissue therapy and rehabilitation exercises are needed to get you to have the best outcomes possible after these types of injury.

Most people after a car accident either go to an emergency room or insta-care where they are prescribed Some muscle relaxers and pain killers, and told to take it easy. The more serious cases are referred to either a Chiropractor or a Physical therapist. Who is going to be the best person to see after a car accident? Chiropractor or Physical therapist (PT)? The answer is both in most cases in my experience. The Chiropractor is going to prepare your body to do the activities that the PT prescribes. How does the Chiropractor get your body ready for physical activity? Through a combination of modalities such as chiropractic adjustments/manipulation, muscle work, massage therapy, inferential current/electrical stimulation, laser therapy, ultrasound and more. The PT is going to help by giving exercises to strengthen the areas that were injured and need strengthening to create more stability after the accident.

What signs that say you need to go to see a professional?

  • Neck pain or soreness
  • Upper back pain or soreness
  • Low back pain or soreness
  • Numbness or tingling in the arms or legs
  • Head ache
  • Sensitivity to light or sounds
  • lingering pains after a car accident

This is just a short list of signs that there is some tissue damage and that you should see a specialist.

I have seen first hand how much Chiropractic and Physical therapy working together drastically improve the lives of those people after an accident.

1. S Khan, J Cook, M Gargan & G Bannister (1999) A Symptomatic Classification of Whiplash Injury and the Implications for Treatment, Journal of Orthopaedic Medicine, 21:1, 22-25, DOI: 10.1080/1355297X.1999.11719898

5 Benefits of Chiropractic Care

Chiropractic care has been around since 1895, but in reality it dates back much further than that. The earliest records of manipulative therapy/chiropractic care date back to 400-385 BCE in Europe. In the time between then and now manipulative therapy and chiropractic have fallen in and out of favor with the medical community. As of today, chiropractic care is becoming looked at as a more favorable alternative to “modern medicine” practices such as: opioids, spinal surgeries in some cases, auto accidents, etc. (1)

So now lets get down to business!

1.Improved Sports Performance Doctors of Chiropractic (DC) have been working with various professional teams to help with performance. All 32 NFL teams, all 30 NBA teams, and the Olympic training centers have DC on staff. The conditions that they help manage for athletes are relieving pressure in the joints, soft tissue (muscles), and spinal and extremity adjustments, muscle strains, tendon and ligament sprains.
Some of the benefits mentioned above bring are increased mobility, better hand-eye coordination, improved balance, faster reaction time to name a few.

2. Improved Recovery Time  After being in an auto-accident research has shown that the sooner you see a chiropractic physician, massage therapist or physical therapist (usually a combination of all 3) the better your long term outcome. As well as with most muscular or skeletal complaint whether it be low back pain, neck pain, arm or leg pain. Chiropractor may be able to help get you feeling better faster.(2)

3. Headache Relief  Headaches are an area that has had lots of research in favor of Chiropractic care to help in the management of headaches. There is evidence that with chiropractic intervention can reduce frequency, duration, and severity of headaches. (3)

4. Reduces Chronic Pain In the United states and Canada low back pain is the most common occupational injury and affects more than 10% of the population at one time or another. It is ranked number 6 in reasons for seeking medical help when it comes to medical cost. Through a combination of Chiropractic care, rehabilitation exercises and education we care able to have improved outcomes at less cost than using usual modern medical care.(4)

5. Reduce Inflammation Chiropractic adjustments have been shown in studies to reduce inflammation and improve blood flow. Combining these two benefits alone can decrease your pain and allow for more pain free movement and improved overall health. (5)

Chiropractic care has helped me when I was dancing on a competitive and performing ballroom dance team through my high school and college years, and also inspired me to become a sports chiropractor. I would get sprains strains and “tweak” my back all the time while dancing and the Chiropractor helped me get back on the floor and perform the best that I could.

1. Pettman E. (2007). A history of manipulative therapy. The Journal of manual & manipulative therapy15(3), 165-74.

2. Goertz, C. M., Long, C. R., Vining, R. D., Pohlman, K. A., Walter, J., & Coulter, I. (2018). Effect of Usual Medical Care Plus Chiropractic Care vs Usual Medical Care Alone on Pain and Disability Among US Service Members With Low Back Pain: A Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Trial. JAMA network open1(1), e180105. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.0105

3. Chaibi, A., Benth, J. Š., Tuchin, P. J., & Russell, M. B. (2016). Chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine: a three-armed, single-blinded, placebo, randomized controlled trial. European journal of neurology24(1), 143-153.

4. Blanchette, M. A., Bussières, A., Stochkendahl, M. J., Boruff, J., & Harrison, P. (2015). Effectiveness and economic evaluation of chiropractic care for the treatment of low back pain: a systematic review protocol. Systematic reviews4, 30. doi:10.1186/s13643-015-0015-5

5. Roy, R. A., Boucher, J. P., & Comtois, A. S. (2010). Inflammatory response following a short-term course of chiropractic treatment in subjects with and without chronic low back pain. Journal of chiropractic medicine9(3), 107-14.